|This paper is part of the research into the connection from grid to social |
orders. It attempts to explore the process of integration of immigrants and
the design of grid to alleviate the conflicts between different ethnical
Four cases are presented to explain the process of immigrant integration.
The former three are historical examples in ancient China on the ‘multi-
ethnical’ cities. They are the division of clans in Western Zhou dynasty in
8th century BCE, the mix of Chinese and Nordic cultures in 13th century CE
and the multi-ethnical Chinese border cities in 19th century CE.
The last case is about the transformation of Chinese ghettos in Milan,
Italy. Though from different historical strata and location, they all
present the issue of Frontier where different ethnic groups meet, trade,
conflict and finally integrate.
The article will examine the cases from following aspects: the historical
background, the economical, cultural and political conflicts and
integration and the grid as spatial tools in creating the space for
integration. Four cases share the similar model of social integration. In
this process, grid is the physical interference as the reflection of the
decision from rulers upon the social orders.
The study is written for planners and governors who are engaged in this
immigrant Frontier issues. The lessons from historical and contemporary
social integration can provide possible references in the political
decisions and the planning of grid.