|- Metropolitan cities in Poland 792 kb|
|by Zagrzejewska Fiedorowicz, Magdalena & Fiedorowicz, Kazimierz | email@example.com |
|Description of Polish metropolitan cities is presented in this paper refering to regulations in force, as well as to planning analyses and general surveys addressing the issue.|
|Definition of metropolitan area is related to its functional characteristics. It leaves place for discretionary interpretations due to lack of consequence in its use, which cause some discussions on its substance. The issue of metropolitan cities in Poland requires consideration.|
Częstochowa University of Technology, Poland
40th World Congress IsoCaRP, 18-22 September, 2004 Geneva, Switzerland Parallel Session No. 4
METROPOLITAN CITIES IN POLAND
Description of metropolitan cities in Poland is presented in this paper. To this end, references have been made to legal regulations in force, as well as to planning analyses and general surveys addressing the issue. Towns network in Poland includes over 800 centres, a part of them belonging to a group of Polish bigger cities. Several towns constitute complexes (ex. the Upper Silesian cities complex of Tricity with Gdańsk). Polish bigger cities are of some international importance and such characteristic may increase in future.
The issue of metropolitan cities in Poland requires consideration. The subject is analysed in the following six aspects:
- network of Polish cities of European importance,
- metropolitan cities in light of the Act on planning and spatial development ,
- formulation of the metropolitan cities’ issue in the “Concept of spatial development’s policy”,
- formulation of the metropolitan cities’ issue in the regional plans of spatial development (at the voivodeship level),
- scope of activities of Polish cities association, called “The Union of Polish Metropolises”,
- scientific researches on metropolisation issue.
To start with, terms such as city of metropolitan features, metropolitan area and structure of this area have been denominated. Definition of metropolitan area is related to its functional characteristics. It leaves place for discretionary interpretations due to lack of consequence in its use, which cause some discussions on its substance.
Network of cities of international significance in Poland and Europe has been analysed. 8 categories of cities (in hierarchic structure) have been separated on the basis of GIP-RECLUS, DATAR 1989 method. To indicate categories of Polish cities of international importance the following attributes have been were considered: size of the university centre, standing of cultural centre and extent of influence on international environment. From results of analyses it appears that Polish cities should be qualified to the lowest categories (6, 7 and 8) with Warsaw itself belonging to the 5th category.
Within the Act on planning and spatial development enacted in 2003 there is an entry devoted to metropolitan areas. It defines among others the features of metropolitan areas. The Act makes it obligatory for provincial (Voivodeship) authorities to elaborate the plan of spatial development for relevant areas, but no method of its preparation has been imposed.
In conformity with a/m the Act, within the document entitled “The Concept of the National Spatial Planning Policy'', basic elements of settlement network are to be described, including metropolitan areas. In the “Concept...” of 2001 the only one Polish city qualified as fulfilling metropolitan functions is Warsaw. It has been described as “capital metropolis” there. Moreover, 10 other cities have been qualified as being “europolis”, i.e. cities of the European importance.
Regional plans of spatial development vary largely one from another in respect to how issue of metropolisation of cities is treated. In three plans only (for Małopolskie, Pomorskie and Wielkopolskie Voivodeship) metropolitan areas were established in conformity with borders of local communes (gminas) and separate plans for spatial development have been specified for them. In other regional plans, expected future existence of the metropolitan area and its multi-functional character has been pointed out.
Polish association of cities of metropolitan functions is called “The Union of Polish Metropolises”. 12 cities belong to it. Taking into account their size (ex. 159 thousands of residents in one case) not all of the cities deserves such membership. Main objective of the Union is promotion of functions typical for metropolitan cities.
Cities and areas of metropolitan features are subject to scientific researches. The studies concentrate on three main issues: functions of metropolitan cities, delimitation of metropolitan areas and ways of their development. Carrying out of international comparison studies on the subject is also purposeful.
The report includes charts and data concerning metropolitan cities of Poland.
|matropolisation, metropolitan area, settlment network, delimitation|
Case Study presented on the ISOCARP Congress 2004: Management of Urban Regions
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