- Housing Supply System in Unauthorized Settlements in Delhi: Process and Outcomes    click here to open paper content576 kb
by    Ahmad, Sohail & Sridharan, N. & Kono, Noriko | architectsohail@gmail.com   click here to send an email to the auther(s) of this paper
Short Outline
This case study shows co-benefits of a small planning intervention in unauthorized settlements in Delhi. The present system of housing supply is unsustainable.
According to an estimate, 20 percent (3.43 million) of Delhi population were residing in unauthorized settlements (including regularized) as of 2011. Interestingly, Delhi’s annual urban population grew at the rate of 2.45, while, population in unauthorized settlements grew at the rate of 3.1 during 2001-11. Based on the magnitude of this issue, this study aims to document innovative housing supply system in unauthorized settlements and quantify socio-economic and environmental degradation as well as annual monetary loss to all stakeholders - individual and government(s). More specifically, this study addresses - Why panning interventions failed to tackle proliferation of unauthorized housings (and settlements) in Delhi, despite success in many critical issues, for instance, improving air quality? What kinds of planning interventions lead to a win-win situation to the residents and the governments?
The study employs case study method to analyse process and outcome of an unauthorized settlement, including under construction buildings in South Delhi in early 2012. Findings reveal that, present state of housing supply in unauthorized settlement impacts socio-economic conditions and significant amount of monetary loss to citizens. For instance, residents of unauthorized settlements bribe approx. USD 10 million annually on housing construction (includes illegitimate building permission and materials procurement). It also causes poor environmental outcome as well huge monetary loss to government(s). The overall housing supply system is professional and comparable to developed housing market. It includes – (a) owner as a builder (individual unit), (b) group housing by builder, and (c) partnership between owner and builder with cost sharing. In absence of recognition of system and planning interventions, it increases cost of a dwelling unit (at least over 2.5 %) and other difficulties e.g., denial of housing loans and identity. This study argues that minimal planning interventions with lower standards will enhance physical, socio-economic and environmental conditions.
housing supply, unauthorized settlements, Delhi
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