- Urban Planning in Conflict Society (How to Plan and Build the Berlin Wall)    click here to open paper content259 kb
by    Freidine, Yefim | fima.fr@gmail.com   click here to send an email to the auther(s) of this paper
Short Outline
Using the metaphor of a Berlin wall as a complex space of interaction, this paper proposes a way to reform the planning system of Russia by introducing conflict negotiation and mediation methodologies. The paper demonstrates the need to combat existing disenfranchisement of the population and shows advantages of creating multi-stakeholder planning processes. The transition from the top-down model to the competitive, cooperative, participatory model is shown as a way forward.
1.Transformation of planning model in Russia from pure modernist (1980), to semi-conflict-based panning. Modernist' way of planning can be successful only in homogenic urban structures, it produces only simple two-dimensional structures without overlapping (which should be formed as servitudes), so any complex multi-user situations are not considered in planning instruments despite the result of public relations.

2. There are two models in macro-sociology:
1. functional. It was presented in soviet union, society is homogenic and it influenced on western science till 1960-ies;
2. society of change. It is based on conflict as a mean of development.
Modernist and soviet society had only stakeholder: people=state. Locals were presented in planning by normative system. Functional system of planning, which ignores any other interest, was formed.
1990: multy-stakeholder system and potentially conflict society. Shrinkage of citizenship as a part of public life in soviet and post-soviet time.

3.How to use this a bit transformed planning system in conditions of social conflict and abscence of person who decide what type of city they need?
Traditionally (non-russian) planners used the public participation practices to produce the future vision for cities. The conflict is resolved on early stages of planning: strategy, master plan.

4.In post-soviet planning we should propose another process. Each of its traditional stage executes specific function of conflict management.
The planning here is management of social and spatial interaction and than stakeholder’s interaction in space (urban planning) and social life (social conflict management).

5.There are three different types of results of planning (and conflict management processes): homogenic (cooperation), heterogenic (opposition) and mixed one (regulations).
So, Berlin after division by the wall, Jerusalem and Palestinian territory as examples of heterogenic spaces can be planned by architect as artificial situation to resolve real conflict (social, political, economical) in social (state) and spatial (city) structures.
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