- AFRICA. FROM SHOULD TO COULD New model of planning practice required addressing the increase in migrations. How to integrate informal mechanisms into the urban management of the African culture. (The uncontrolled independence of Peter Panís shadow)   click here to open paper content1179 kb
by    Contin, Antonella & Castano Ortiz, Pedro & Della Rosa, Massimo | antonella.contin@polimi.it   click here to send an email to the auther(s) of this paper
Short Outline
The abstract will present a point of view on the complementarity between
formality and informality, showing the importance of informality as a
source of resilience and adaptability. Dar es Salaam and Cairo Ard al-Liwa
New Centrality, Ado Ekiti case studies.
The beginning of the 21st C. is experiencing the phenomena of rapid growth
of large urban areas: the metropolitan areas. Growth is uneven between
developed economies and emerging economies or transforming ones. The
Challenge is to address the emerging economies where growth is at the range
of annual 5%, which reflects in a two-fold urban structure every 15 years.
The urbanization process is speeding up around the world. Since 2010 more
than half of the population of the planet have been living in cities. In
the next 20 years the urban population will be expected to grow by 2.000
million inhabitants. Cities are already reacting to these phenomena, but
they have to be able to receive and house such large numbers and address
related new needs, limiting as much possible dramatic issues. Moreover, the
city is the place, in which are taken about the whole territory, not only
the built or the [quotright]buildable[quotrightB?]Ě, but also about the
agricultural and natural ones. So it[simplequote]s becoming urgent to
recognise the relationships and the reciprocal services between city and
ecosystems and to identify suitable tools of communication throw the
citizens, stakeholders and city managers.
The problem is part of the so-called [quotright]global
dimension[quotrightB?]Ě. The Metropolitan management must to deal with
economics, social needs and physical aspects. There is a constant struggle
to equilibrate social policies and economic policies. Facing the historical
structural transformation of the type of settlements, we should provide
some direction about methodology and scale able to guide and determine the
development and management of the [quotright]Metropolitan Net-
We formulate integrated and progressive approaches and provide strategic
methods for a developing model, which leads to an intervention and then to
a specific local form of Metropolitan City. It is not only a model of a
general plan that we need. Therefore, it is a cultural leap to a new
identity, which must represent, through its regulatory structures, forms
and territorial vocations within common strategies and rules.
The focus of our research is the new regional scale of the city, and in
particular the coherence between a formal settlement and the illegal one.
The Illegality transforms the territory in a losing system by exploiting;
it becomes an alien straight and profitable organization onto the territory
system. The climate change increases the fragile situation. The dialogue
between the formal and the informal is difficult as they employ
incompatible procedures and mechanisms. There is need however to try to
work out a ground of understanding and collaboration to foster the
potential of both. The challenge is not only to add benefits but also to
achieve a multiplier effect on the complementarity of both, using each of
them for what they can be more performing in the African context. Achieving
synergies and multiplier effects can be the outcome that will benefit the
city, the metropolis, the region, or the country.
The dialogue between the formal and informal in the spatial-physical realm
cannot dismiss the informal economy as a causality factor of the urban
processes: the informal urban sector.
Without denying or forgetting the final objective of formality, where all
the rights and duties towards society and the individual are supposed to be
cared for, the informal sector provides, at least, a minimum access to
services for those that can not access the provision of the formal sector.
Informality can be seen as an imperfect intermediary stage that should not
be interpreted as the enemy of formality, but as a stepping-stone to the
more desirable stages of formality.
In this view informality can and/or should be fostered, with the necessary
controls in mind, instead of denied or persecuted. The objective is then
the need to establish the harnessing processes to avoid flagrant breach of
human rights and social duties informality could hide, and to establish the
procedure to allow for an incremental path to formalization in an
undetermined time horizon. The approach is not any more to prosecute and
illegitimatize informality. It is a real change of paradigm.
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