- From Garden City to City in a Garden (Case study: Shiraz city as a ''Permaculture'' model in Iran)   click here to open paper content690 kb
by    Fattahi, Sara & Bazrkar, Mojtaba | Sara_ftth@yahoo.com   click here to send an email to the auther(s) of this paper
Short Outline
In new urbanization, some gardens and open spaces have been destroyed in
Shiraz, Iran,
during the development of the city. Converting Shiraz city to a model of
''Permaculture'' and
increasing green spaces in Shiraz by roof gardening is discussed in this
Along with the rapid growth in population on a global basis, many cities in
the world are fast becoming highly urbanized with the construction of
buildings and structures in close proximity to each other. Competition for
land structure decreases green space. In this case urban communities face
many challenges related to the health and well being of citizens and there
is a subsequent spiritual disconnect from agricultural roots and the
natural world. Therefore we will have to make a greater effort to ensure
that we continue to make space for greenery and our natural heritage.

We believe roof greening can be a good answer to the host of problems
related to rapid urbanization such as the Urban Heat Island effect,
increased storm-water runoff causing flash floods, poor air quality,
increased energy consumption and loss of habitat and biodiversity. Rooftop
gardens are an excellent example of incorporating passive, ecofriendly
technology into new or existing development. Rooftops gardens help mitigate
the negative impacts of cities on the environment by becoming a source of
local food production, and green space in city.

''Permaculture'' methodology

Green roofs can double the longevity of a roof when compared with
traditional roofing materials and some components incorporate recycled
materials. These practices increase sustainability of urban areas and
improve quality of life.

''Permaculture'' is a term coined by Bill Mollison, an Australian in 1978,
describing a system based on working with nature and in effect mimicking
natural ecosystems, to create ‘sustainable’ human agricultures, or ''perma-
nent agri-culture''.

In this case Shiraz, one of the most famous cities in south of Iran can be
a model of green city because of its location . Shiraz is known as the city
of poets, literature, wine and flowers. It is also considered by many
Iranians as a ''Gardens City'', due to the many gardens and fruit trees that
can be seen in the city. Thorough the population growth in the city, many
of these gardens have been lost to pave the way of new developments.
Although some measures have been taken by the Municipality to preserve
these gardens, many illegal developments still endangers them.

This paper examines some of the environmental benefits which green roofs
can offer in mitigating the adverse impact of urbanization. Therefore , it
examines the ‘Permaculture’ Principle for increasing urban agriculture in
Shiraz, known as the ''Gardens City.'' Finally our paper concludes that
designing rooftop gardens can be an important solution for the green space
volume issue within Shiraz.
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