- Breaking the vicious circle of distrust and underdevelopment in context of creative economy: The case of Pakistan    click here to open paper content75 kb
by    Rahman, Mohammad Atiq ur & Sakano, Tatsuro & Komai, Takeshi | atiqgis@yahoo.com   click here to send an email to the auther(s) of this paper
Short Outline
This paper identifies the development strategies experienced in Pakistan and identifies the institutional framework that can facilitate to convert the vicious circle to a positive circle of generating the formation of social trust and social capital.
In developing countries like Pakistan, the traditional top-down approaches of state-led participatory development through bureaucratic channels generate a vicious circle of distrust and underdevelopment. These approaches put heavy emphasis on investing in the physical and human capital while formation of social capital is generally ignored. The devastation of social capital through such planning practices poses severe threats to the creative urban economies. It is a challenge to development planners to explore the development approaches that can break this vicious circle thus facilitating the formation of social capital by minimizing the inequalities of information, role and control for the allocation and utilization of the resources of development.

With an objective to identify the appropriate development strategy, this paper divides the development strategies experienced by planners in Pakistan into three categories namely self-organization strategy; external agent strategy and equitable partnerships strategy. These development strategies are analyzed with the proposed typology of four situations of social trust i.e. destitute situation; close self-reliant situation; paternalistic situation and high trust situation in relation with the scale of development problem.

With the relevant case studies from Pakistan, this research aims to describe the possibility of breaking the vicious circle of distrust and underdevelopment in the line of institutional assumptions of equitable partnerships that can facilitate the formation of social trust thus strengthening social capital. This paper also aims to highlight the efforts of urban planners of Pakistan to break the vicious circle of distrust and underdevelopment through replication of the innovative approaches in the real world situation.
Social Trust, Vicious circle of trust and underdevelopment, Pakistan, City Planning
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